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Selective breeding over centuries has produced several color variations, some of them far removed from the " golden " color of the original fish.
There are also different body shapes, and fin and eye configurations. Some extreme versions of the goldfish live only in aquariums —they are much less hardy than varieties closer to the "wild" original.
However, some variations are hardier, such as the Shubunkin. Currently, there are about breeds recognized in China. Chinese tradition classifies goldfish into four main types.
Where it was believed for some time that Prussian carp Carassius gibelio were the closest wild relative of the goldfish. Juvenile crucian carp have a black spot on the base of the tail, which disappears with age.
Like their wild ancestors, common and comet goldfish as well as Shubunkin can survive, and even thrive, in any climate that can support a pond, whereas fancy goldfish are unlikely to survive in the wild as their bright colors and long fins make them easy prey.
Goldfish can hybridize with certain other Carassius as well as other species of carp. Within three breeding generations, the vast majority of the hybrid spawn revert to the wild type color.
Koi and common carp may also interbreed with goldfish to produce sterile hybrids. Like most species in the carp family, goldfish produce a large amount of waste both in their feces and through their gills , releasing harmful chemicals into the water.
Build-up of this waste to toxic levels can occur in a relatively short period of time, and can easily cause a goldfish's death.
The water surface area determines how much oxygen diffuses and dissolves into the water. A general rule is have 1 square foot 0.
Active aeration by way of a water pump , filter or fountain effectively increases the surface area. The goldfish is classified as a coldwater fish , and can live in unheated aquaria at a temperature comfortable for humans.
However, rapid changes in temperature for example in an office building in winter when the heat is turned off at night can kill them, especially if the tank is small.
Care must also be taken when adding water, as the new water may be of a different temperature. However, higher temperatures may help fight protozoan infestations by accelerating the parasite 's life-cycle—thus eliminating it more quickly.
Like all fish, goldfish do not like to be petted. In fact, touching a goldfish can endanger its health, because it can cause the protective slime coat to be damaged or removed, exposing the fish's skin to infection from bacteria or water-born parasites.
However, goldfish respond to people by surfacing at feeding time, and can be trained or acclimated to taking pellets or flakes from human fingers.
The reputation of goldfish dying quickly is often due to poor care. If left in the dark for a period of time, goldfish gradually change color until they are almost gray.
Fish have cells called chromatophores that produce pigments which reflect light, and give the fish coloration. The color of a goldfish is determined by which pigments are in the cells, how many pigment molecules there are, and whether the pigment is grouped inside the cell or is spaced throughout the cytoplasm.
Because goldfish eat live plants, their presence in a planted aquarium can be problematic. Only a few aquarium plant species for example Cryptocoryne and Anubias can survive around goldfish, but they require special attention so that they are not uprooted.
Plastic plants are more durable. Goldfish are popular pond fish, since they are small, inexpensive, colorful and very hardy.
In an outdoor pond or water garden , they may even survive for brief periods if ice forms on the surface, as long as there is enough oxygen remaining in the water and the pond does not freeze solid.
Common, London and Bristol shubunkins, jikin, wakin, comet and some hardier fantail goldfish can be kept in a pond all year round in temperate and subtropical climates.
Moor, veiltail, oranda and lionhead can be kept safely in outdoor ponds year-round only in more tropical climates and only in summer elsewhere.
Ponds small and large are fine in warmer areas although it ought to be noted that goldfish can "overheat" in small volumes of water in the summer in tropical climates.
During winter, goldfish become sluggish, stop eating and often stay on the bottom of the pond.
This is normal; they become active again in the spring. Unless the pond is large enough to maintain its own ecosystem without interference from humans, a filter is important to clear waste and keep the pond clean.
Plants are essential as they act as part of the filtration system, as well as a food source for the fish. Plants are further beneficial since they raise oxygen levels in the water.
Compatible fish include rudd , tench , orfe and koi , but the latter require specialized care. Ramshorn snails are helpful by eating any algae that grows in the pond.
Without some form of animal population control , goldfish ponds can easily become overstocked. Fish such as orfe consume goldfish eggs. Like some other popular aquarium fish, such as the guppy , goldfish and other carp are frequently added to stagnant bodies of water to reduce mosquito populations.
They are used to prevent the spread of West Nile virus , which relies on mosquitoes to migrate. However, introducing goldfish has often had negative consequences for local ecosystems.
Fishbowls are detrimental to the health of goldfish and are prohibited by animal welfare legislation in several municipalities.
In addition, all goldfish varieties have the potential to reach 5 inches Single-tailed varieties include common and comet goldfish.
In many countries, carnival and fair operators commonly give goldfish away in plastic bags as prizes. In late Rome banned the use of goldfish and other animals as carnival prizes.
Rome has also banned the use of "goldfish bowls", on animal cruelty grounds,  as well as Monza, Italy, in In Japan , during summer festivals and religious holidays ennichi , a traditional game called goldfish scooping is played, in which a player scoops goldfish from a basin with a special scooper.
Sometimes bouncy balls are substituted for goldfish. Although edible and closely related to some fairly widely eaten species, goldfish are rarely eaten.
A fad among American college students for many years was swallowing goldfish as a stunt and as a fraternity initiation process. The first recorded instance was in at Harvard University.
In Iran and among the international Iranian diaspora , goldfish are a traditional part of Nowruz celebrations. Some animal advocates have called for boycotts of goldfish purchases, citing industrial farming and low survival rates of the fish.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the fish species. For other uses, see Goldfish disambiguation. Conservation status.
Linnaeus ,  . List of synonyms. See also: Fish food. Main article: List of goldfish varieties. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Retrieved 14 April Retrieved Ocean Park. Westport: Greenwood Press. Bristol Aquarists' Society. Hagen, Inc.
USA and Rolf C. Hagen Corp. Goldfish varieties and genetics: A handbook for breeders. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Archived from the original on September 1, The Ocean at Home.
New York: Princeton Architectural Press. BBC News. Retrieved 17 July In Collin, S. Sensory Processing in Aquatic Environments. New York: Springer-Verlag.
In goldfish, as the best investigated fish species[ Das Farbensehen des Goldfisches: Eine verhaltensphysiologische Analyse.
Auditory evoked potential audiometry in fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 23 3 , Acoustic stimulation of the ear of the goldfish Carassius auratus.
Journal of Experimental Biology, 61 1 , Goldfish were trained to push a lever to earn a food reward; when the lever was fixed to work only for an hour a day, the fish soon learned to activate it at the correct time.
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. The experiment involved training the fish to navigate a maze. It was evident that they were able to remember the correct path of the maze after more than a month.
April ABC News. May 7, Retrieved December 28, The Fish Vet. Retrieved December 31, Archived from the original PDF on Montreal, Canada ". Archived from the original on Erik L.
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