Zeus Legends Beschreibung
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On Crete, Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult and hymned as ho megas kouros , "the great youth".
The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus ,  together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees , suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.
The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion. The epithet Zeus Lykaios "wolf-Zeus" is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes of Mount Lykaion "Wolf Mountain" , the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia ; Zeus had only a formal connection  with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants.
According to Plato ,  a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's.
Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended.
There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis ; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios.
This, Cook argues, brings indeed much new 'light' to the matter as Achaeus , the contemporary tragedian of Sophocles , spoke of Zeus Lykaios as "starry-eyed", and this Zeus Lykaios may just be the Arcadian Zeus, son of Aether, described by Cicero.
Again under this new signification may be seen Pausanias ' descriptions of Lykosoura being 'the first city that ever the sun beheld', and of the altar of Zeus, at the summit of Mount Lykaion, before which stood two columns bearing gilded eagles and 'facing the sun-rise'.
Further Cook sees only the tale of Zeus' sacred precinct at Mount Lykaion allowing no shadows referring to Zeus as 'god of light' Lykaios.
Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground.
Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios "kindly" or "honeyed" while other cities had Zeus Chthonios "earthy" , Zeus Katachthonios "under-the-earth" and Zeus Plousios "wealth-bringing".
These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter , and also the heroes at their tombs.
Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus.
Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius "the nurturing" , depending on whether you believe Pausanias , or Strabo.
Ancient Molossian kings sacrificed to Zeus Areius. Strabo mention that at Tralles there was the Zeus Larisaeus. In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men.
With the epithet Zeus Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna , where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.
Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo , the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis , a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.
The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus , where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak.
When the Odyssey was composed circa BC , divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi , who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches.
Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera , but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle.
The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander 's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War.
Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta , where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War. After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl.
Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination see interpretatio graeca with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia.
He, along with Dionysus , absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius.
Zeus is occasionally conflated with the Hellenic sun god , Helios , who is sometimes either directly referred to as Zeus' eye,  or clearly implied as such.
Hesiod , for instance, describes Zeus' eye as effectively the sun. The Cretan Zeus Tallaios had solar elements to his cult. In Neoplatonism , Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind , specifically within Plotinus 's work the Enneads  and the Platonic Theology of Proclus.
Zeus is mentioned in the New Testament twice, first in Acts — When the people living in Lystra saw the Apostle Paul heal a lame man, they considered Paul and his partner Barnabas to be gods, identifying Paul with Hermes and Barnabas with Zeus, even trying to offer them sacrifices with the crowd.
Two ancient inscriptions discovered in near Lystra testify to the worship of these two gods in that city. The second occurrence is in Acts the name of the ship in which the prisoner Paul set sail from the island of Malta bore the figurehead "Sons of Zeus" aka Castor and Pollux.
The deuterocanonical book of 2 Maccabees , 2 talks of King Antiochus IV Epiphanes , who in his attempt to stamp out the Jewish religion, directed that the temple at Jerusalem be profaned and rededicated to Zeus Jupiter Olympius.
Pistis Sophia , a Gnostic text discovered in and possibly written between the 3rd and 4th centuries AD alludes to Zeus.
He appears there as one of five grand rulers gathered together by a divine figure named Yew, as the manuscript states. Depictions of Zeus as a bull, the form he took when abducting Europa , are found on the Greek 2- euro coin and on the United Kingdom identity card for visa holders.
Mary Beard , professor of Classics at Cambridge University , has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Zeus disambiguation. Greek god of the sky and king of the gods. King of the Gods God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice.
Zeus de Smyrne, discovered in Smyrna in . Sacred Places. Sacred Islands. Sacred Mountains. Rites of passage. Hellenistic philosophy.
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Enthroned Zeus Greek, c. Ancient Greece portal Myths portal Religion portal. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Religions of India: Hinduism, Yoga, Buddhism.
Columbia University Press. Madan The Hinduism Omnibus. Oxford University Press. The Indian Theogony.
Cambridge University Press. Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books. Mythology ed. New York: Back Bay Books. In Hicks, R.
Lives of Eminent Philosophers. American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Online Etymology Dictionary.
Greek Religion. Word study tool of Ancient languages. The Makers of Hellas. Afterward, Zeus married Themis , who bore him the Horae and the Fates.
His third wife was Eurynome , who brought the Charites to the world. His sister Demeter followed; she gave birth to Persephone. With his fifth wife, Mnemosyne , Zeus begot the Muses.
Knowing her sympathy for animals, he wooed her as a virgin by transforming himself into a distressed little cuckoo, which Hera took in her arms to warm it.
At that moment, Zeus turned back into himself and slept with her. Ashamed, Hera agreed to marry him. However, theirs would prove to be a bittersweet marriage, because Zeus , to say the least, was a promiscuous god.
Bearing the shape of many different animals, he had numerous love affairs with many nymphs and mortals , which made Hera jealous; some say that, when she scolded him for this, disguised as a serpent, he even slept with his mother, Rhea.
Zeus is called Jupiter in Roman mythology. Additionally, his powers, symbolism and some of the stories woven around him, are similar to those of some other deities, such as the Norse gods Thor and Odin , the Hinduist deity Indra, and the Slavic thunder god Perun.
Zeus is pervasive in ancient literary sources. You can read about him practically anywhere. The parents of Zeus were Cronus and Rhea.
The Creation. Zeus's Lovers. There he revealed his true identity and mated with her under an evergreen tree. The story of the abduction of Europa is very popular and has been depicted in art numerous times.
Moreover, the continent of Europe gets its name from Europa. Ganymede has been described by Homer as the most beautiful of mortals.
He caught the eye of Zeus and Zeus fell in love with him. Zeus took the form of an eagle and abducted Ganymede from Mount Ida and transported him to Mount Olympus , the place from where Zeus ruled as the king of the gods.
At Olympus, Zeus granted Ganymede eternal youth and immortality and the office of cup-bearer to the gods.
Interestingly, a moon of Jupiter was named Ganymede by the German astronomer Simon Marius in the 17th century. Known for his intelligence, Prometheus was one of the Titans, a race of deities.
Zeus was once angry with the mortals for offering him animal bones wrapped in fat instead of meat. To punish them, Zeus withheld fire from them.
Prometheus defied this order of Zeus and gave fire back to the humans by hiding it in a giant fennel-stalk.
He thus enabled human progress and civilization. However, Zeus turned furious when he learned about this theft. He chained Prometheus to a rock and cursed him with a punishment where an eagle, the emblem of Zeus, was sent to peck at his liver every day.
His liver would then regenerate every night to be eaten again the next day , trapping him in an eternal and painful loop. Zeus disliked humans as he saw them indulge in extreme forms of decadence.
Outraged, he flooded earth with the help of his brother Poseidon to wipe out humankind. Deucalion ; the son of Prometheus and the Greek equivalent of Noah ; constructed an ark and, along with his wife Pyrrha , survived the flood and landed on Mount Parnassus.
The couple then offered sacrifice to Zeus and inquired from an oracle about how to repopulate the earth. Deucalion and Pyrrha correctly understood that mother was the earth goddess Gaia and the bones were rocks.
They thus threw rocks behind their shoulders: the ones thrown by Deucalion became men and the ones thrown by Pyrrha became women.
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Retrieved Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek , Brill, , p. Online Etymology Dictionary. Greek Religion. Word study tool of Ancient languages.
The Makers of Hellas. Griffin, Limited. Limiting the Arbitrary. Sweet Water Press. Retrieved 14 February The Iliad. South Africa: Penguin Classics.
De Natura Deorum , 3. Deipnosophists , 9. Albemarle Street, London. In Bekker, August Immanuel ed. Myriobiblon in Greek. Tomus alter. Berlin: Ge.
At the Internet Archive. At khazarzar. The head, which is roughly worked at back and must have occupied a niche , was found at Hadrian's Villa , Tivoli and donated to the British Museum by John Thomas Barber Beaumont in BM In Smith, William ed.
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Translated with an introduction by A. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Zeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula.
Argonautika , ii. Satchidananda Murty, R. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 May Orr, , Vol. III, p. Mead Pistis Sophia.
Jazzybee Verlag. KapanLagi in Indonesian. Retrieved 25 January Rapp News. NY Times. The New York Times Company.
Telegraph India. Digital Journal. MTV News. The Morton Report. Wildside Press LLC. PlayStation Universe. Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion , especially section III.
Oxford; Clarendon — Still the standard reference. Evelyn-White , Cambridge, Massachusetts. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
Murray, Ph. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Murray, PH. Mitford, William , The History of Greece , Nilsson, Martin P. Ancient Greek religion and mythology.
Achilles island Delos. Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures.
Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus. Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho. Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos. Empusa Epiales Hypnos Pasithea Oneiroi.
Angelia Arke Hermes Iris. Apate Dolos Hermes Momus. Circe Hecate Hermes Trismegistus. Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna Lake.
Charonium at Aornum Charonium at Acharaca. Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus. Charon Charon's obol. Bident Cap of invisibility.
Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle. Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia. Argo Phaeacian ships. Discordianism Gaianism Feraferia Hellenism.
Greek mythology in popular culture. Ancient Greek deities by affiliation. Eos Helios Selene. Asteria Leto Lelantos.
While he was sleeping, they stole his thunderbolt and bound him with hundred-knotted cords. Zeus was powerless, but the Nereid Thetis acted quickly and called Briareus, the Hecatoncheir, who used his hundred arms to untie him in a second.
Zeus brutally punished the three leaders of the rebellion especially Hera , and they swore to never challenge him again. Prometheus , however, did — first by stealing the divine fire and giving it to the mortals , and then by keeping away from Zeus the identity of a mortal woman whose future son was prophesized to become greater than his father.
Zeus chained Prometheus to a rock and tormented him for ages, but Prometheus stubbornly refused to reveal to him the secret.
The son born out of this marriage became a celebrated Greek hero - in fact, possibly the greatest among them all: Achilles.
According to Hesiod, Zeus had the very same problem with his first wife, Metis. Warned that their child may be a threat to him, Zeus decided to swallow his pregnant wife.
Nevertheless, the child, fully grown and armored, was eventually born — but from the forehead of Zeus. It was none other than Athena , the goddess of wisdom herself.
Afterward, Zeus married Themis , who bore him the Horae and the Fates. His third wife was Eurynome , who brought the Charites to the world. His sister Demeter followed; she gave birth to Persephone.
With his fifth wife, Mnemosyne , Zeus begot the Muses. Knowing her sympathy for animals, he wooed her as a virgin by transforming himself into a distressed little cuckoo, which Hera took in her arms to warm it.
At that moment, Zeus turned back into himself and slept with her. Besides dispensing justice—he had a strong connection with his daughter Dike Justice —Zeus was the protector of cities, the home, property, strangers, guests, and supplicants.
Zeus was well known for his amorousness—a source of perpetual discord with his wife, Hera —and he had many love affairs with both mortal and immortal women.
In order to achieve his amorous designs, Zeus frequently assumed animal forms, such as that of a cuckoo when he ravished Hera, a swan when he ravished Leda , or a bull when he carried off Europa.
Notable among his offspring were the twins Apollo and Artemis , by the Titaness Leto ; Helen and the Dioscuri , by Leda of Sparta; Persephone , by the goddess Demeter ; Athena , born from his head after he had swallowed the Titaness Metis; Hephaestus , Hebe , Ares , and Eileithyia , by his wife, Hera; Dionysus , by the goddess Semele ; and many others.
Although statues of Zeus Herkeios Guardian of the House and altars of Zeus Xenios Hospitable graced the forecourts of houses, and though his mountaintop shrines were visited by pilgrims, Zeus did not have a temple at Athens until the late 6th century bce , and even his temple at Olympia postdated that of Hera.
In art Zeus was represented as a bearded, dignified, and mature man of stalwart build; his most prominent symbols were the thunderbolt and the eagle.
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